Understanding the issue, recognizing workplace factors, being aware of signs and symptoms and taking pro-active steps for prevention can help reduce the impact of burnout on employees and workplaces.

Understand the issue
Burnout is characterized by emotional exhaustion, cynicism and ineffectiveness in the workplace, and by chronic negative responses to stressful workplace conditions.
While not considered a mental illness, burnout can be considered a mental health issue. According to the Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research (cited below), burnout is having a growing impact on workplaces, in particular in advanced economies and during times of economic downturn.
Burnout is more likely when employees:
Expect too much of themselves.
Never feel that the work they are doing is good enough.
Feel inadequate or incompetent.
Feel unappreciated for their work efforts.
Have unreasonable demands placed upon them.
Are in roles that are not a good job fit.
Because it can be chronic in nature, affecting both the health and performance of employees at all levels of organizations, prevention strategies are considered the most effective approach for addressing workplace burnout.

Recognize signs and symptoms
The majority of employees experiencing burnout will remain at work. Being aware of changes in attitudes and energy can help with early identification. Employees may not realize that they are dealing with burnout and may instead believe that they are just struggling to keep up during stressful times. Stress, however, is usually experienced as feeling anxious and having a sense of urgency while burnout is more commonly experienced as helplessness, hopelessness, or apathy.
Employees may not be aware of the negative impacts on their performance that this can have, such as increased errors or lower productivity. Employers and co-workers may attribute the changes to a poor attitude or loss of motivation. The negative effects of burnout can increase significantly before anyone recognizes or addresses the problem and unaddressed burnout can increase the chance of developing clinical depression or other serious conditions.

Some of the signs and symptoms that an employee experiencing burnout may exhibit include:
Reduced efficiency and energy
Lowered levels of motivation
Increased errors
Increased frustration
More time spent working with less being accomplished

Severe burnout can also result in:
Self-medication with alcohol and other substances
Sarcasm and negativity
Debilitating self-doubt
Left unaddressed, burnout may result in a number of outcomes including:
Poor physical health
Clinical depression
Reduced job satisfaction
Decreased productivity
Increased absenteeism
Increased risk of accidents
Poor workplace morale
Communication breakdown
Increased turnover
The lies we tell ourselves

Some employees who have recovered from burnout shared what they called “the lies we told ourselves” related to denying the signs of burnout, even when loved ones pointed it out to them. These included:
I am fine
It is your nagging at me that is stressful
I love my job
I am happy to take more on
I am just tired
You don’t understand, no one else can do this
People are depending on me
I really want to be helpful
I will be fine once this is done
This too will pass
I need to get back to the top of my game
I’ll take a vacation and then be okay
If people just let me do my job, I would be fine
It’s not me, it is everyone and everything else

Most actually believed these statements to be true and to a certain extent, many of them were. The “lie” was in denying that their current situation was damaging their health and well-being and that changes were necessary. This denial eventually led to burnout.

Prevention strategies
Provide clear expectations for all employees and obtain confirmation that each employee understands those expectations.
Make sure that employees have the necessary resources and skills to meet expectations.
Provide ongoing training to employees to maintain competency.
Help employees understand their value to the organization and their contributions to the organization’s goals.
Enforce reasonable work hours, including, if necessary, sending employees without good boundaries home at the end of their regular work day.
Help assess workload for those who feel pressured to remain working beyond normal business hours.
Set reasonable and realistic expectations. Organizations should be clear as to which activities require the highest standards and when it is okay to lower the bar and still meet business needs.
Encourage social support and respect within and among work teams.
Support physical activity throughout the workday.
Strongly encourage the taking of breaks away from the work environment.
Consider how leadership approaches might impact employees at risk of burnout.

Strategies for overachievers
Those who are overachievers are at a higher risk of burnout. These are individuals who often respond to work stress by taking on more work, which can be further exacerbated by a workplace that consistently looks to top performers to take on most of the toughest projects as well as additional tasks such as mentoring lower performers. Strategies to balance these expectations include:

Avoid always requiring the overachiever to compensate for others. Give your top performers the opportunity to work with colleagues that are at or near their level of competence. This allows more balanced sharing of a project’s workload and pressures as well as the opportunity to learn and grow together. Having to consistently pick up the slack and/or coach lesser performers can drain a high performer’s energy and morale.
Give high performers choices. Many leaders assume their overachievers only want to work on the most demanding projects. In some cases this may be true, but over time, this may move that employee further away from what they loved about their job in the first place. The leader may be surprised by which projects a higher performing employee might actually enjoy working on.
Watch out for the “Yes” people. The overachiever may agree to every request because they feel that it is expected, have a hard time saying “no”, or underestimate the amount of time and energy that it will take. The employee who keeps agreeing to do that one more thing may feel like they’re never getting caught up, are inadequate, and not living up to expectations. These thoughts can be drivers of burnout.
Support recovery at work
Developing a workplace plan is a practical strategy to support an employee who may be experiencing burnout.
As part of any plan, ask the employee how best to recognize their successes and victories. This could include immediate and personal praise, opportunities for growth and development, public recognition, or incentives. It is important to understand what is most valued by the employee. This may help as employees experiencing burnout often have a significant loss of confidence in their overall competency.
Consider opportunities for the employee to help or support others, keeping in mind this may not be a great strategy if that was a regular and difficult part of the employee’s job prior to their burnout. By taking the attention away from what they are not doing well, and instead using their strengths to mentor or coach someone else, you may help reduce apathy and cynicism.
• Help organize and prioritize work into manageable and clear expectations. These changes can help rebuild energy over time and aid in recovery.
Recovering from burnout

Self-care strategies:
Minimize or eliminate alcohol and caffeine
Develop and follow a healthy eating plan
Take time away from work if the burnout is resulting in impairment in the ability to function or requires treatment
Ensure that the recovery process includes the development of a healthy approach to work
Walk in green space
Find a creative outlet such as painting

Change the way you think and live:
Focus daily on your accomplishments
Avoid criticizing yourself unnecessarily
Give yourself a gift on your birthday or other holiday event
Create a space in your home that feels serene and peaceful
Keep your environment organized and tidy
Write daily in a gratitude journal to help refocus your mind on those things that are positive in your life
Post a list of what is valued, enjoyable or precious in your life on your fridge or somewhere you will see it daily
Nurture your spirit using quiet reflection, meditation, or prayer

Change how you think about and do work:
Stop multi-tasking – focus on one thing at a time
Work at a reasonable, steady pace
Break down seemingly overwhelming tasks and projects into smaller achievable parts
Recognize and celebrate your small steps along the way
Tell your manager you want to be successful at your job and ask them how they would measure that
Take regular assigned breaks
Resist working unnecessary overtime
Even if you must provide contact information in case of emergency, try as much as possible to stay disconnected from work during vacation time

Improve relationships:
Set boundaries for yourself in terms of what you will and will not do – be okay with saying no
Avoid toxic people and situations
Learn to be comfortable with saying “I don’t know” if you don’t know
Shut out media that includes disturbing images and messages
Became more involved and connected with friends, family or the community


Elements of a self-care plan to prevent burnout:
Develop a list of self-care strategies, which could include journaling, meditation, massage, yoga, reading, music, mindfulness, stretching, tai chi, dancing, breath techniques, etc.
Each week assess where you are at in following through on the strategies you have chosen
Tweak your list as needed for the upcoming week
Determine your priorities for the week, month, and year – make them reasonable – and write them down and review them regularly to keep yourself focused on what matters to you
Use the principles of mindfulness, scanning your body for areas of tension at least once a week – address the areas of tension by considering the source and if necessary, seeking support or treatment
Take time to become centred and grounded through quiet reflection, prayer or meditation – remind yourself that “the silence within me is not at war with chaos around me.”

Detect early signs of deteriorating health and take action:
List what burnout looks like for you (anger, frustration, exhaustion, etc.) so you can identify it early and take steps to prevent a downward spiral
If you are feeling overwhelmed, ask for help, delegate tasks, or reset priorities
Connect with people who care about you
Enlist support of people you trust
Learn to verbalize your feelings to prevent future episodes of burnout
Minimize or eliminate exposure to negative and toxic people in your life
Attend relevant seminars and talks on mental health